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classification of element(मुल्यांचे वर्गीकरण)-Mpsc chemistry notes

classification of element(मुल्यांचे वर्गीकरण)-Mpsc chemistry notes


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classification of element(मुल्यांचे वर्गीकरण)-Mpsc chemistry notes

Table Of Contain-classification of element(मुल्यांचे वर्गीकरण)-Mpsc chemistry notes


  1. Introduction of classification of element
  2. Metal
      Physical Properties of metals
    1. Lustre
    2. Malleability
    3. Ductility
    4. Conduction of Heat
    5. Conduction Of Electricity
    6. Hardness
    7. Melting And Boiling Point
    8. Sonorous
  3. Metal reaction with Oxygen
  4. Metal reaction with Acid
  5. NonMetal
  6. Metalloid
  7. MPSC Chemistry Notes

Intro of classification of element


➤There are metals non-metals and metalloid are present in the nature.
➤ All this are classified on the basis of a physical and some chemical properties.
➤There are certain properties like Examples of chemical properties include flammability, toxicity, acidity, reactivity.
➤Lets see the physical properties are in detail.

✪ Lustre ✪


➤ Metallic luster is a property of a metal that describes the amount of light that reflects off the metal. In other words, it describes the shine.
➤ Light reflection property are increase due to lustre property of a metal.

✪ Malleability ✪


➤ Malleability is a physical property of metals that defines their ability to be hammered, pressed, or rolled into thin sheets without breaking.
➤ Examples of malleable metals are zinc, iron, aluminum, copper,gold,silver, and lead. silver and gold are highly malleable.
➤Gold and silver has good malleability properties.
➤Examples of malleable metals are gold, iron, aluminum, copper, silver, and lead..



✪ Ductility ✪
➤Ductility refers to the time a solid material stretches under tensile strain..
➤If ductile, a material may be stretched into a wire. Malleability, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under pressure (compressive stress).
➤Copper, aluminum and steel are examples of ductile metals.
➤ Gold are more ductile in nature.
➤ 2km wire can form from 1 gm of gold

✪ Conduction of Heat ✪
➤Transformation of a energy from a metal is conduction of a heat.
➤ The microscopic collision of particles and the movement of electrons in the body perform the conduction.
➤ Colliding molecules (including molecules, atoms and electrons) transfer disordered microscopic kinetic energy and potential energy, collectively called internal energy.
➤The conduction equation tells us that the rate of heat transfer in Joules or Watts per second (Q/t) is equal to the thermal conductivity of the material (k).
➤The heat conduction equation is a partial differential equation that describes the distribution of heat (or temperature field) in a given object over time.
➤Eg.Roasting wieners over a campfire is fun until the heat from the fire is conducted up the coat hanger to your hand.

✪ Conduction Of Electricity ✪
➤Conductivity is the movement of charged particles through a transmission medium.
➤ This movement can form an electric current in response to an electric field..
➤ Metal conducts electricity by moving electrons. The outermost electrons in the metal are loosely fixed so they can move from one atom to another.
➤ Copper is considered a conductor because it "conducts" electron current or electron flow quite easily. Most metals are considered good current conductors..
➤ Electrical conductors allow current to flow easily due to their atomic composition. In a conductor, the external electrons of the atom are loosely bound and can freely pass through the material when a charge is applied..
➤Conduction occurs in solids, liquids and gases. ... Another example is when the current is passing through the conductor’s wires, we can watch TV or use a computer.

✪ Hardness ✪


➤The ability of a material to resist impact depression is related to the hardness and ductility of the material.
➤The most commonly used hardness test is defined by the shape or type of indentation, the size and the amount of load applied.
➤ In terms of tensile strength, tungsten is the strongest of all natural metals (142,000 psi). But in terms of impact strength, tungsten is very weak-it is a brittle metal that is known to shatter under impact. On the other hand, the tensile strength of titanium is 63,000 psi.

✪ Melting And Boiling ✪
➤When a metal melts or boils, this is a change in physical state
➤This energy is needed to overcome the attraction between metal ions and localized electrons in the metal
➤The more energy required, the higher the melting or boiling point..
➤tungusten has high melting point.

✪ Sonorous ✪


➤Electronic bonds in metals are highly delocalized due to their extremely low electronegativity.
➤ This means that when struck, the electron cloud moves very easily-almost no energy is dissipated
➤This makes the incoming kinetic energy easy to spread in an unbalanced form-fluctuations..
➤Metal is inherently elastic, such as iron, tin, copper, etc. When we hit metal (surface), especially thin plates, it has elasticity. Even wires (musical instruments).
➤The elasticity of metals makes them vibrate back and forth, creating ripples in the fluid medium (water or air). It sounds pretty good!.
➤Silver is very flexible. There will be a very sharp sound when impacted. Therefore, it is the loudest metal.

✪ Reaction of Metal with Oxygen ✪


➤ Metal oxides are formed when metals are react with a oxygens.
➤ When metals react with oxygen, metal oxides are formed. The general formula for this reaction is: metal + oxygen → metal oxide.
➤ The transition metal reacts with oxygen to form a metal oxide. However, gold, silver and platinum will not react with oxygen.
➤ Generally, metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides. Generally, the metal oxide is ionic compound #. ...The less active metals react with oxygen more easily than the less active metals. Generally, Group 1 (IA or alkali) metals and Group 2 (IIA or alkaline earth) metals are more active than transition metals..
➤ 4Na + O2 = 2NA20

✪ Reaction of Metal with Acid ✪


➤ When Metals react with acid it produce salt.
➤ When an acid reacts with a metal, salt and hydrogen are formed: acid + metal → salt + hydrogen, for example: nitric acid + calcium → calcium nitrate + hydrogen The salt produced depends on which acid and which metal react.
➤ Acids will react with most metals and will form salts. It doesn't matter which metal or acid is used, if a reaction occurs, we always get hydrogen and salt.
➤ Copper is a very unreactive metal, and it does not react with hydrochloric acid

✪ Non Metal ✪


Q.What is NonMetal ?
➤Non-metal is a chemical element, mainly lacking the characteristics of metal. Physically, non-metals tend to have relatively low melting points, boiling points, and densities. Non-metals usually become brittle when solid, and usually have poor thermal and electrical conductivity.
➤ Non-metal atoms tend to be smaller than metal atoms. Some other properties of non-metals are determined by their atomic size..
➤ Non-metals exhibit very low conductivity. Low or non-existent conductivity is the most important characteristic to distinguish non-metals from metals..
➤ Under normal temperature and pressure conditions, some non-metals are found to be gases, some are solid, and one is liquid. In contrast to mercury, all metals are solid at room temperature. The fact that so many non-metals exist in liquid or gaseous form means that non-metals generally have relatively low melting points and boiling points under normal atmospheric conditions..
➤ Non-metals have high electro negativity. This means that non-metal atoms have a strong tendency to hold electrons. On the contrary, metals are relatively easy to donate one or more electrons to non-metals, so metals tend to form positively charged ions, and metals tend to conduct electricity..
➤ In its solid state, non-metals tend to become brittle. Therefore, they lack the ductility and ductility exhibited by metals..
➤Eg. Carbon, hydrogen,oxygen.

✪ Metalloid ✪


Q. What are the properties of metalloid ?
➤ Metalloids are good semiconductors..
➤ The reactivity of metalloids are dependent on the properties of elements they are reacting with.
➤ Electronegativity and ionization energy are between metals and non-metals..
➤ They are capable of forming glasses.
➤ When mixed with metals, they form alloys
➤Compounds are formed when they react with the halogens.


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