classification of element(मुल्यांचे वर्गीकरण)-Mpsc chemistry notes
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classification of element(मुल्यांचे वर्गीकरण)-Mpsc chemistry notes
Table Of Contain-classification of element(मुल्यांचे वर्गीकरण)-Mpsc chemistry notes
Intro of classification of element
➤There are metals non-metals and metalloid are present in the nature.
➤ All this are classified on the basis of a physical and some chemical properties.
➤There are certain properties like Examples of chemical properties include flammability, toxicity, acidity, reactivity.
➤Lets see the physical properties are in detail.
✪ Lustre ✪
➤ Metallic luster is a property of a metal that describes the amount of light that reflects off the metal. In other words, it describes the shine.
➤ Light reflection property are increase due to lustre property of a metal.
✪ Malleability ✪
➤ Malleability is a physical property of metals that defines their ability to be hammered, pressed, or rolled into thin sheets without breaking.
➤ Examples of malleable metals are zinc, iron, aluminum, copper,gold,silver, and lead. silver and gold are highly malleable.
➤Gold and silver has good malleability properties.
➤Examples of malleable metals are gold, iron, aluminum, copper, silver, and lead..
✪ Ductility ✪
➤Ductility refers to the time a solid material stretches under tensile strain..
➤If ductile, a material may be stretched into a wire. Malleability, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under pressure (compressive stress).
➤Copper, aluminum and steel are examples of ductile metals.
➤ Gold are more ductile in nature. ➤ 2km wire can form from 1 gm of gold
✪ Conduction of Heat ✪
➤Transformation of a energy from a metal is conduction of a heat.
➤ The microscopic collision of particles and the movement of electrons in the body perform the conduction.
➤ Colliding molecules (including molecules, atoms and electrons) transfer disordered microscopic kinetic energy and potential energy, collectively called internal energy.
➤The conduction equation tells us that the rate of heat transfer in Joules or Watts per second (Q/t) is equal to the thermal conductivity of the material (k).
➤The heat conduction equation is a partial differential equation that describes the distribution of heat (or temperature field) in a given object over time.
➤Eg.Roasting wieners over a campfire is fun until the heat from the fire is conducted up the coat hanger to your hand.
✪ Conduction Of Electricity ✪
➤Conductivity is the movement of charged particles through a transmission medium.
➤ This movement can form an electric current in response to an electric field..
➤ Metal conducts electricity by moving electrons. The outermost electrons in the metal are loosely fixed so they can move from one atom to another.
➤ Copper is considered a conductor because it "conducts" electron current or electron flow quite easily. Most metals are considered good current conductors..
➤ Electrical conductors allow current to flow easily due to their atomic composition. In a conductor, the external electrons of the atom are loosely bound and can freely pass through the material when a charge is applied..
➤Conduction occurs in solids, liquids and gases. ... Another example is when the current is passing through the conductor’s wires, we can watch TV or use a computer.
✪ Hardness ✪
➤The ability of a material to resist impact depression is related to the hardness and ductility of the material.
➤The most commonly used hardness test is defined by the shape or type of indentation, the size and the amount of load applied.
➤ In terms of tensile strength, tungsten is the strongest of all natural metals (142,000 psi). But in terms of impact strength, tungsten is very weak-it is a brittle metal that is known to shatter under impact. On the other hand, the tensile strength of titanium is 63,000 psi.
✪ Melting And Boiling ✪
➤When a metal melts or boils, this is a change in physical state
➤This energy is needed to overcome the attraction between metal ions and localized electrons in the metal
➤The more energy required, the higher the melting or boiling point..
➤tungusten has high melting point.
✪ Sonorous ✪
➤Electronic bonds in metals are highly delocalized due to their extremely low electronegativity.
➤ This means that when struck, the electron cloud moves very easily-almost no energy is dissipated
➤This makes the incoming kinetic energy easy to spread in an unbalanced form-fluctuations..
➤Metal is inherently elastic, such as iron, tin, copper, etc. When we hit metal (surface), especially thin plates, it has elasticity. Even wires (musical instruments).
➤The elasticity of metals makes them vibrate back and forth, creating ripples in the fluid medium (water or air). It sounds pretty good!.
➤Silver is very flexible. There will be a very sharp sound when impacted. Therefore, it is the loudest metal.
✪ Reaction of Metal with Oxygen ✪
➤ Metal oxides are formed when metals are react with a oxygens.
➤ When metals react with oxygen, metal oxides are formed. The general formula for this reaction is: metal + oxygen → metal oxide.
➤ The transition metal reacts with oxygen to form a metal oxide. However, gold, silver and platinum will not react with oxygen.
➤ Generally, metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides. Generally, the metal oxide is ionic compound #. ...The less active metals react with oxygen more easily than the less active metals. Generally, Group 1 (IA or alkali) metals and Group 2 (IIA or alkaline earth) metals are more active than transition metals..
➤ 4Na + O2 = 2NA20
✪ Reaction of Metal with Acid ✪
➤ When Metals react with acid it produce salt.
➤ When an acid reacts with a metal, salt and hydrogen are formed: acid + metal → salt + hydrogen, for example: nitric acid + calcium → calcium nitrate + hydrogen The salt produced depends on which acid and which metal react.
➤ Acids will react with most metals and will form salts. It doesn't matter which metal or acid is used, if a reaction occurs, we always get hydrogen and salt.
➤ Copper is a very unreactive metal, and it does not react with hydrochloric acid
✪ Non Metal ✪
Q.What is NonMetal ?
➤Non-metal is a chemical element, mainly lacking the characteristics of metal. Physically, non-metals tend to have relatively low melting points, boiling points, and densities. Non-metals usually become brittle when solid, and usually have poor thermal and electrical conductivity.
➤ Non-metal atoms tend to be smaller than metal atoms. Some other properties of non-metals are determined by their atomic size..
➤ Non-metals exhibit very low conductivity. Low or non-existent conductivity is the most important characteristic to distinguish non-metals from metals..
➤ Under normal temperature and pressure conditions, some non-metals are found to be gases, some are solid, and one is liquid. In contrast to mercury, all metals are solid at room temperature. The fact that so many non-metals exist in liquid or gaseous form means that non-metals generally have relatively low melting points and boiling points under normal atmospheric conditions..
➤ Non-metals have high electro negativity. This means that non-metal atoms have a strong tendency to hold electrons. On the contrary, metals are relatively easy to donate one or more electrons to non-metals, so metals tend to form positively charged ions, and metals tend to conduct electricity..
➤ In its solid state, non-metals tend to become brittle. Therefore, they lack the ductility and ductility exhibited by metals..
➤Eg. Carbon, hydrogen,oxygen.
✪ Metalloid ✪
Q. What are the properties of metalloid ?
➤ Metalloids are good semiconductors..
➤ The reactivity of metalloids are dependent on the properties of elements they are reacting with.
➤ Electronegativity and ionization energy are between metals and non-metals..
➤ They are capable of forming glasses.
➤ When mixed with metals, they form alloys
➤Compounds are formed when they react with the halogens.
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