minerals and ores(खनिजे आणि धातुके)-mpsc Chemistry

minerals and ores(खनिजे आणि धातुके)

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minerals and ores(खनिजे आणि धातुके)-mpsc Chemistry

Intro of minerals and ores

➤metals are found in various impure from in nature.
➤Sometimes they found with salt,sometimes with clay.
➤They are found with oxides and ores.
➤By performing various methods they can extracted from impure from to pure from.

✪ minerals ✪

Q. What is minerals ?
➤ Metals are found in nature with impure compound form.
➤ This is impure form is called as minerals.
➤ A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid, with a definite chemical composition, and an ordered atomic arrangement..
➤Types of a minerals
  • Native elements. eg. Gold, Silver, Mercury, graphite, diamond.
  • Oxides. eg corundum (incl. sapphire), hematite, spinel.
  • Sulfides. eg. Pyrite, galena, sphalerite.
  • Hydroxides. eg. Goethite, brucite.
  • Sulfates. eg. Baryte, gypsum.
  • Carbonates. eg. Calcite, magnesite, dolomite.
  • Phosphates. eg. Apatite, monazite

✪ Ores ✪

Q. What is Ores ?
➤ Ore is natural rock or sediment that contains one or more valuable minerals, typically metals, that can be mined, treated and sold at a profit.
➤ Ore is extracted from the earth through mining, processed or refined (usually through smelting) to extract valuable metals or minerals.
➤Types of a ores
  • Acanthite (cooled polymorph of Argentite): Ag2S for production of silver.
  • Barite: BaSO4
  • Bauxite Al(OH)3 and AlOOH, dried to Al2O3 for production of aluminium.
  • Beryl: Be3Al2(SiO3)6
  • Bornite: Cu5FeS4
  • Cassiterite: SnO2
  • Chalcocite: Cu2S for production of copper.
  • Chalcopyrite: CuFeS2

✪ Extraction Methods ✪
➤ Generally it can be done with electrolysis.
➤ Following are the methods of extracting ores from soil.
  • Exploration -Finding Perfect Ore.
  • Drilling and blasting -Getting ores out of ground.
  • Crushing -Getting minerals out of ores.
  • refining -cleaning the mineral .
  • distribution -Distributing minerals.

✪ Rust Prevention Methods ✪

➤Rust is a chemical process in which ferrous iron reacts with oxygen in the presence of moisture (or water) to produce trivalent iron (Fe(III)) oxides and hydroxides called rust.
➤We can detect a physical change by open eye.

➤Zinc plating is a metal coating process in which a thin layer of zinc is applied to iron parts.
➤Galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating on steel or iron to prevent premature rust and corrosion..
➤Galvanized layer Galvanizing or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating on steel or iron to prevent rust. The most common method is hot dip galvanizing, in which the part is immersed in a molten hot zinc bath.


➤Tinning is the process of applying tin on wrought iron or steel sheet, and the resulting product is called tinplate
➤ The higher the temperature, the more susceptible to corrosion of your soldering iron tips, so it is important to make them as clear as possible of soot and impurities, and covered with a protective layer of solder. Tinning basically covers your tip in solder and flux to protect it..
➤It is most commonly used to prevent rust, but it is also commonly used as a conductor at the end of stranded wires to prevent oxidation (increasing resistance), and to prevent abrasion or wear when used in various wire connectors (such as stranded wires). Spread-on, terminal or terminal.


➤ Electroplating is the process of applying a metal coating on another piece of metal (or another conductive surface) through an electrodeposition process. In electroplating, the deposited metal becomes part of the existing product through electroplating/coating.
➤ With the help of electric current, the process of depositing any thin layer of high-quality metal on a cheap metal object is called electroplating. For example: depositing silver in brass or copper objects by electroplating, and depositing copper, nickel, chromium, etc. on iron objects..
➤ Electroplating is used in jewelry making to coat precious metals on base metals to make them more attractive and valuable, and sometimes more durable. Chrome plating is applied to wheel rims, gas burners and bathroom fixtures to impart corrosion resistance, thereby increasing the life expectancy of the parts.


➤Anodizing is an electrochemical process that transforms the metal surface into a decorative, durable, and corrosion-resistant anodized layer.
➤Anodization is the process of forming a thick oxide layer of aluminum. Aluminum will form a thin oxide layer when exposed to air.
Aluminum anodization is usually carried out in an acidic solution (usually sulfuric acid or chromic acid), which slowly dissolves the alumina. The acid effect is balanced with the oxidation rate to form a nanoporous coating with a diameter of 10-150 nm..
➤Anodizing is the most common method to improve the corrosion resistance of certain alloys (especially those affected by the marine environment), such as, for example, ship hulls, dock components, and oil rig structures. It is also used to control wear and is common in sandpaper due to its high hardness..
➤The anodization of titanium can produce a variety of colors without applying organic dyes or artificial coatings on the metal surface. ...As the molecular thickness of the oxide layer increases, the light entering the layer will be refracted at different angles, resulting in the color we see, similar to the working principle of a prism.


➤Alloying is a process in which two or more metal elements are melted together in a precise combination to form a specific material.
➤ Depending on the alloy, alloying can be done in induction furnace or casting process.
➤ Almost all metals are used as alloys, that is, mixtures of several elements, because their performance is better than pure metals. There are many reasons for alloying, usually to increase strength, improve corrosion resistance or reduce cost..
➤ Need Of Alloying.
➤ Enhanced corrosion resistance: alloys are more resistant to corrosion than pure metals. Pure metals are chemically reactive and are easily corroded by surrounding atmospheric gases and moisture. Alloying metals increases the inertness of the metals, thereby increasing corrosion resistance.

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