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concept of matter(द्रव्याची संकल्पना)-MPSC chemistry science

concept-of-matter


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concept of matter(द्रव्याची संकल्पना)


Introduction of concept of matter


Q.Definition of matter ?
➤The matter is everything around you. Atoms and compounds are all made of very small parts of matter.
Q.What are the types of matter ?
➤Solids, liquids, gases and plasma. Bose-Einstein condensates.
Q. What are the properties of matters ?.
➤ The properties of a substance include any feature that can be measured, such as the density, color, mass, volume, length, ductility, melting point, hardness, smell, temperature, etc. of the object.
➤ Matter can be broken down into two categories: pure substances and mixtures.
➤The first law of thermodynamics does not actually stipulate that matter can neither be created nor destroyed, but that total energy cannot be created or destroyed in a closed system (although it can be changed from one form to another)..

✪ Classification Of Matter ✪


➤ Matters are classified on the basis of physical properties and chemical properties.
➤ Physical properties are like density,weight ,volume,elasticity,intermolecular force,fluidity,Compressibility.
➤ Chemical properties are like Melting Point,Condensation,sublimation,evaporation.
✪ Classification by Physical Properties ✪
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

✪ Physical classification ✪
  • Elements
  • Compound
  • Mixture


✪ Physical Classification ✪


➤ There are certain properties like a density of a element , fluidity of a matter , Elasticity of a matter. on this properties matter are divides in a further types.
➤ Physical properties include: appearance, texture, color, odor, melting point, boiling point, density, solubility, polarity, and many others.

1.Solid
Q. What is solid state of mater ?
➤Solid is one of the four basic states of matter.
➤ The molecules in a solid pack tightly together and contain the least amount of kinetic energy..
➤ There is thermal energy in the each molecule of matter .
➤ The state of matter depends on what amount of thermal energy present in the molecule.
➤ Solid has high amount of thermal energy.
➤ Intermolecular force is very strong.
➤ Intermolecular distance is very low.
➤They are very rigid in nature
➤ The shape of solid substances are fixed in nature
➤ They are rigid (their shape cannot be changed).
➤ The kinetic energy of its particles is minimum.
➤ Solids have fixed volume.
➤ Low rate of diffusion.



2.Liquid
Q. What is Liquid Form of a water ?
➤ Liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid, conforms to the shape of the container, but maintains a constant volume regardless of pressure.
➤ Less Amount of thermal energy as compare to solid.
➤ Medium Intermolecular force.
➤ Medium intermolecular distance.
➤ They are less rigid in nature as compare with water.
➤ Shape is not fixed.
➤ High kinetic energy than solid.
➤ Liquids have fixed volume.
➤ They can be compressed.
➤ They are fluid and thus can flow like water.

3.Gas
Q.What is Gas ?
➤Gas is one of the four basic states of matter. Pure gas can be composed of a single atom, an element molecule composed of one atom, or a compound molecule composed of multiple atoms.
➤ Very Less Thermal Energy.
➤ Very Less Intermolecular Force.
➤ Very high Intermolecular distance.
➤ Very high Kinetic Energy.
➤ Not have fixed Volume.
➤ Can Be compressed.
➤ Gases neither have definite shape nor have fixed volume.
➤ They are neither rigid nor fluids.
➤ Their intermolecular force of attraction is least.
➤ The kinetic energy of its particles is maximum.
➤ they occupy far more space than the liquids or solids from which they form..

✪ Another state of matter ✪


  • 1.Plasma
  • 2.Bose-Einstein condensate

Plasma


➤ This state found in a very high temperature and in very high energy.
➤ This state present in a Ionic Format.
➤ plasmas have no fixed shape or volume.
➤ less dense than solids or liquids.
➤ plasma are compressible
➤Plasma is a state of matter in which an ionized gaseous substance becomes highly electrically conductive to the point that long-range electric and magnetic fields dominate the behaviour of the matter.

Bose-Einstein condensate


➤The Bose-Einstein condensate is a set of atoms in the hair cooled to absolutely zero.
➤When they reach this temperature, the atoms hardly move relative to each other. They have little freedom to do so .Instead, atoms fall into the same quantum state and cannot be distinguished from each other.

✪ Changes Of States ✪
➤ Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made significant theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.
➤ He told that the various properties of matter are depend on a change of state and the structure of a molecules. ➤Following are the various states of a matter

Sublimation


➤Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas state, without passing through the liquid state.
➤Solids which have high pressure at their triple point show sublimation.
➤ The triple point is the point where the pressure and temperature of a substance can exist in all three states of matter at the same time. The three points are characteristic points of matter.
➤ Eg.Camphor,Dry Ice

Evaporation
➤ Evaporation is a type of evaporation that occurs on the surface of a liquid when it becomes a gas phase.
➤The surrounding gas must not be saturated with vaporized material.
➤The process by which liquid water enters the atmosphere as water vapor.
➤The evaporation rate depends on the temperature difference between the evaporation surface and the air, relative humidity and wind.
Eg. Sea Water to air.

Condensation


➤ The Air change to the state as a liquid when the steam is cooled at certain temperature.
➤ Condensation occurs in one of two ways: the air is cooled to the dew point, or it is saturated with water vapor to the point where it cannot hold more water..
➤ Air Get Saturated at a dew point.
➤ Eg. LPG Gas.

Solidification


➤Solidification is a phase change, when the temperature drops below the freezing point, the liquid becomes solid.
➤ During solidification, the solid phase nucleates and grows in a crystal structure.
➤This is almost always an exothermic process, which means that heat is released when a liquid becomes a solid.
➤ Directional solidification can be used as a purification process. …As described in Scheil’s equation, the suitability of directional solidification to remove specific impurities from a certain metal depends on the distribution coefficient of the impurities in the metal in question.
➤Eg. Water turn to Ice.

Melting


➤Melting or fusion is a physical process that causes the phase change of a substance from solid to liquid
➤This process depends on a temperature
➤Melting point is point where substance start melting.
➤ Intermolecular force became weak.
➤ Intermolecular distance increases.
Eg.Ice turn into a water.


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