Periodic Table(आवर्तसारणी)-Mpsc chemistry notes

Periodic Table(आवर्तसारणी)-Mpsc chemistry notes

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Periodic Table(आवर्तसारणी)-Mpsc chemistry notes

Intro of Periodic Table


By Shubham Vyawahare

➤There are 118 elements on the periodic table.
➤ This is the arrangement of a all elements present in the nature.
➤They are arranged on the basis of electronic configuration and chemical properties.
➤They are divided on the basis of electronic configuration and their state of matter.
➤They are 3 state of mater metal non-metal and metalloid.
➤They are further divided into a S P D F Blocks.

✪ Dobereiner's Tried ✪

➤ Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1780-1849) was a German chemist.
➤ He became a professor of chemistry and pharmacy at the University of Jena.
➤ He said that the the there are some group in the nature which are bonded by same properties.
➤He made a group of 3 subsatnces and said that the atomic mass of a middle substances are similar to the average of atomic mass of two other.
➤ Eg. Li Na K In this example Atomic mass of Na is Average of Atomic mass of Li and K
➤ (A) of Li-6.9.
➤ (A) of NA-23.
➤ (A) of K-39.
➤ Now As per Dobereiners Tried (A) of NA= [(A)Li + (A)K ]/2

Advantages of Dobereiner's Tried
➤1. It gave an idea for classification of elements..
➤2. It showed some peroidic classifications between elements.
➤3. It gave a base support for Newlands and Mendeleev to make new arrangements

Disadvantages of Dobereiner's Tried
➤ Limited Numbers Are Classified.

✪ Newlands Octave ✪

➤ John Alexander Reina Newlands was a British chemist .
➤ “law of octaves” noted a pattern in the atomic structure of elements with similar chemical properties.
➤He Sort a element in a increasing by there atomic mass.
➤So he found that the there is rotation in the series of element with similar properties.
➤He Compare the metal series with a basic sound that is (Sa Re GA MA PA DA NI sa ).
➤And He created a series of octave with first and last octave has similar properties.
➤Eg.The eighth element from fluorine is chlorine.
➤ Fluorine and chlorine have similar chemical properties.
DisAdvantages of Newlands Octave
➤ Newlands assumes that there are only 56 elements in nature, and no more elements will be discovered in the near future.
➤ Cobalt and nickel are in the same slot and are positioned in the same column with fluorine, chlorine and bromine possessing different properties than these elements.

✪ Mendeleev Periodic Table ✪
➤Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev was a Russian chemist and inventor..
➤ The nature of an element is the law of periodic function of its atomic number. Mendeleev's Law.
➤Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing relative atomic mass.
➤ There are six periods (numbered from 1 to 6) or horizontal rows in the Mendeleev's periodic table. The periods 4, 5 and 6 are divided into two halves.
Advantages of Mendeleev Periodic table
➤ Element grouping as He summarized the research on the elements into only 8 groups
➤ No element gap was found. Mendeleev left some gaps in his periodic table. These gaps were left to later contain elements unknown at the time. He correctly believes that these elements will be discovered later
➤ Predict the nature of the element not found. He predicted the attributes of unknown elements based on the attributes of the elements adjacent to the empty slot
➤ Correct the incorrect quality. He was able to correct the atomic mass of these elements, such as gold and platinum, strictly based on the similarity of their properties.
DisAdvantages of Mendeleev Periodic table
➤ The position of the isotope: According to Mendeleev's periodic law, the isotope of the element must be placed separately in the periodic table because their atomic masses are different. But they are not assigned to a separate place
➤ Grouping of chemically different elements: Elements such as copper and silver have no similarities with alkali metals, but they are placed in different groups
➤ Separation of chemically similar elements: Chemically similar elements (such as gold and platinum) have been placed in separate groups
➤ Electronic arrangement: It does not explain the electronic arrangement of elements
➤ Position of hydrogen: There is no fixed position.

✪ Modern Periodic Table ✪
➤Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley was an English physicist.
➤ He discovered that the modern periodic table should based on atomic number.
➤ He rearrange the element on the basis of electronic configuration.
➤There are 7 periods and 18 groups in the modern periodic table.
➤Periods:Horizontal lines are periods.
➤Groups:Vertical lines are Columns.
➤All the elements are placed in the table successfully.

Modern periodic table is divided into a 4 parts

✪ S-Block Element ✪
➤Group 1 and group 2 are placed in a S blocks.
➤ they are generally metal in nature.
➤ They have maximum 1 to 2 electrons in there outer shell .
➤ Their valency are in between 1 d 2.
➤ Alkali and alkaline earth metal are present in the S blocks.
➤ Alkali is Group 1 element and alkaline earth metal Means Group 2 element.

✪ P-Block Element ✪

➤Group 13 to group 18 are placed in a P blocks.
➤They have maximum 3 to 8 electrons in there outer shell.
➤ All Metal non metal and metalloid are present.
➤Halogens and nobal element placed here.
➤ Group 18 consist with nobal gases.
✪ D-Block Element ✪
➤From Group 3 to Group 12
➤They have special properties like outer two shell are incomplete.
➤This is properties know as a transition element.
➤This all substances are metal in nature.

✪ F-Block Element ✪

➤Placed At Bottom side of a periodic Table
➤ Lanthanide and actinide are present in this groups.
➤3 Outer shell of metal are incomplete.
➤They all are metal in nature.
➤Lanthanide series start from 6th periods .
➤Lanthanide has 15 elements .
➤actinide series start from 7th periods .
➤actinide has 15 elements.
mber (z)=6 and atomic mass number(A)=12.

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